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The main difference between Monera and Protista is that Monera has a prokaryotic cellular organization, whereas Protista has eukaryotic cellular organization.
Monera Vs. Protista
There are different forms of life on earth which are divided into five kingdom classification system. These five kingdoms are Monera, Protists, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Monera is the most primitive type of organisms. Conversely, Protista shows the early evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Monera is a unicellular organism and is a prokaryote while Protista consists of unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Monera does not have a true nucleus, and it also lacks well- defined, membrane-bounded organelles. On the other hand, Protista has a well-defined nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles. Monera consists of eubacteria, archaebacteria, and cyanobacteria, whereas, Protista consists of algae, molds, and protozoans. Some organisms in Monera and Protista are autotrophs while some of them are heterotrophs.
What is Monera?
Kingdom Monera consists of primitive organisms that are prokaryotic, unicellular, and are without any well-developed organelle and nucleus, etc. But, they are cosmopolitan and found in every type of habitat. Even a single fall of water consists of around 50 billion bacteria. They can live in extreme conditions like hot springs, deserts, and acidic soils, etc. They play an important role in natural cycles like carbon and nitrogen cycles etc. They may be autotrophic, heterotrophic, symbiotic, commensalism, saprophytic or parasitic, etc. In these organisms, circulation takes place through the process of diffusion and movement through flagella. They reproduce by asexual mean of reproduction like binary fission, budding or fragmentation, etc. They are used in medicines, fermentation, bioremediation and in making therapeutic proteins, etc. Examples of Monera are Sporohalobacter, Halobacterium, Clostridium, Mycobacteria, and Bacillus.
What is Protista?
First of all, Ernst Haeckel used the word “Protista.” Protista is a large group and consists of around 16 phyla. They are known as the predecessor of the fungi, plants, and animals. They are eukaryotes, so they have well-developed membrane-bounded organelles. Most protists are aquatic, some live in moist soil or the body of plants and humans, and spread a large number of diseases like sleeping sickness and malaria, etc. They move through flagella and cilia and may reproduce both sexually and asexually. They are a good source of food, medicines, commercial products, minerals, and also used as a research tool. Green algae, brown algae, water molds, red algae, dinoflagellate, and amoeba, are a few examples of protists.
- Monera has a prokaryotic cellular organization, whereas, Protista has eukaryotic cellular organization.
- Monera has a simple structure and is less complex; on the other hand, Protista is comparatively complex.
- Monera has unicellular organisms. Conversely, Protista consists of both unicellular and multicellular organisms.
- Monera consists of small micro-organisms, on the flip side, Protista contains organisms that are larger than Monerans.
- Monera does not have a well-defined nucleus, while, Protista has a true nucleus.
- Membrane-bounded organelles are absent in Monera, whereas, Protista contains membrane-bounded organelles like Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria, Chloroplast.
- Protista has a well-developed cell wall as compared to Monera.
- Neither flagella nor cilia are present in Monera; on the other hand, these are present in some organisms in Protista for locomotion. Some Protista also has pseudopodia.
- The mode of reproduction of Monera is Asexual, on the flip side, the mode of reproduction of Protista is both Sexual and Asexual.
- Almost all the habitats on earth are occupied by Monera. Conversely, the habitat of most of the Protista is an aquatic environment.
- Monera is classified into eubacteria, archaebacteria, and cyanobacteria, while, Protista are classified into algae, diatoms, molds, and protozoans.
- Examples of Monera are Sporohalobacter, Halobacterium, Clostridium, Mycobacteria, and Bacillus, on the other hand, the examples of Protista are slime molds, Green algae, red algae, water mold, and Euglena.
From the above discussion, it is summarized that both Monera and Protista are two groups of organisms. Monera consists of unicellular, prokaryotic organisms that are found everywhere, whereas Protista consists of unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organisms that are mostly aquatic and spread diseases in human.