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DNA vs. Chromosome: What's the Difference?

Edited by Sara Rehman || By Sumera Saeed || Published on November 30, 2023
DNA is the molecule carrying genetic instructions, while a chromosome is a structure containing DNA and proteins, organizing genetic information.

Key Differences

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. However, a chromosome is a packaged form of DNA, combined with proteins, found in the nucleus of our cells.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023
The structure of DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone. While, chromosomes are made of DNA coiled tightly around proteins called histones.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive, and reproduce. Whereas, chromosomes ensure DNA is accurately replicated and distributed in cell division.
Sara Rehman
Nov 30, 2023
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell, which contain all the DNA necessary for the functioning of the body. Each chromosome carries many genes, the basic units of heredity.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023
DNA sequences must be read accurately to produce proteins, which are essential for life. The integrity of these sequences is maintained within the structure of the
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023
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Comparison Chart

Definition

A molecule with genetic instructions
A structure containing DNA and proteins
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

Structure

Double helix with base pairs
DNA coiled around histones
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Nov 30, 2023

Role

Carries genetic information
Organizes and protects genetic information
Sara Rehman
Nov 30, 2023

Unit of Heredity

Contains genes
Carries many genes
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Nov 30, 2023

In Cells

Found in chromosomes
Found in cell nucleus
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Nov 30, 2023
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DNA and Chromosome Definitions

DNA

DNA is the carrier of genetic information in living organisms.
DNA testing can reveal family ancestry.
Janet White
Nov 16, 2023

Chromosome

Chromosomes vary in number across different species.
Fruit flies have four pairs of chromosomes.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 16, 2023

DNA

DNA sequences are essential for synthesizing proteins.
Errors in DNA can lead to genetic disorders.
Sara Rehman
Nov 16, 2023

Chromosome

Abnormalities in chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders.
Abnormal chromosome count can result in developmental issues.
Aimie Carlson
Nov 16, 2023

DNA

DNA has a unique double helix structure.
The discovery of DNA's structure revolutionized biology.
Aimie Carlson
Nov 16, 2023

Chromosome

Chromosomes are structures that organize DNA within cells.
Humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Harlon Moss
Nov 16, 2023

DNA

DNA replication is crucial for cell division.
During mitosis, DNA is replicated in each new cell.
Janet White
Nov 16, 2023

Chromosome

Chromosomes ensure proper distribution of genetic material during cell division.
Chromosomes align during metaphase of mitosis.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 16, 2023

DNA

DNA mutations can lead to evolutionary changes.
Some DNA mutations can confer survival advantages.
Harlon Moss
Nov 16, 2023

Chromosome

Each chromosome carries many genes.
The 21st chromosome's trisomy causes Down syndrome.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 16, 2023

DNA

A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in cells and some viruses, consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. DNA sequences are replicated by the cell prior to cell division and may include genes, intergenic spacers, and regions that bind to regulatory proteins.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

Chromosome

A linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

DNA

Alternative form of DNA
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

Chromosome

A circular strand of DNA in bacteria and archaea that contains the hereditary information necessary for cell life.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

DNA

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; - more commonly used than the full name. See also RNA.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

Chromosome

A linear arrangement of condensed DNA and associated proteins (such as chaperone proteins) which contains the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosomes store genetic information.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

DNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information;
DNA is the king of molecules
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Nov 15, 2023

Chromosome

One of the minute bodies into which the chromatin of the nucleus is resolved during mitotic cell division; the idant of Weismann.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

Chromosome

A threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Sumera Saeed
Nov 15, 2023

FAQs

What makes up chromosomes?

DNA coiled around histone proteins.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

What is DNA?

Molecule carrying genetic instructions in cells.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

Are DNA and chromosomes the same?

No, DNA is part of chromosomes.
Janet White
Nov 30, 2023

Can chromosome number vary in species?

Yes, different species have different numbers of chromosomes.
Aimie Carlson
Nov 30, 2023

Is DNA found in all living organisms?

Yes, in some form in all organisms.
Aimie Carlson
Nov 30, 2023

How is DNA structured?

As a double helix with base pairs.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

How many chromosomes do humans have?

23 pairs in each cell.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

What role do chromosomes play in heredity?

They carry genes, the units of heredity.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

What happens if chromosome structure is altered?

It can lead to genetic disorders or diseases.
Harlon Moss
Nov 30, 2023

What is a chromosome?

Structure in cells containing DNA and proteins.
Sara Rehman
Nov 30, 2023

What is the primary role of DNA?

To store and transmit genetic information.
Harlon Moss
Nov 30, 2023

What is chromosomal trisomy?

The presence of an extra chromosome.
Harlon Moss
Nov 30, 2023

How does DNA affect protein synthesis?

DNA sequences are used to build proteins.
Harlon Moss
Nov 30, 2023

What function do chromosomes serve?

Organizing and protecting genetic material.
Harlon Moss
Nov 30, 2023

How do DNA mutations affect organisms?

They can lead to genetic variations or disorders.
Harlon Moss
Nov 30, 2023

Can DNA be used for identification?

Yes, due to its unique pattern in individuals.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

How is DNA replicated?

Through a process in cell division.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

Can environmental factors affect DNA?

Yes, they can cause mutations.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

What are histones in chromosomes?

Proteins around which DNA coils.
Sumera Saeed
Nov 30, 2023

How are DNA and chromosomes related?

Chromosomes are the structural units containing DNA.
Janet White
Nov 30, 2023
About Author
Written by
Sumera Saeed
Sumera is an experienced content writer and editor with a niche in comparative analysis. At Diffeence Wiki, she crafts clear and unbiased comparisons to guide readers in making informed decisions. With a dedication to thorough research and quality, Sumera's work stands out in the digital realm. Off the clock, she enjoys reading and exploring diverse cultures.
Edited by
Sara Rehman
Sara Rehman is a seasoned writer and editor with extensive experience at Difference Wiki. Holding a Master's degree in Information Technology, she combines her academic prowess with her passion for writing to deliver insightful and well-researched content.

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