Difference Between Acid vs. Base

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Main Difference

Acids and bases are the chemical compounds which are said to be chemical opposites of each other. They are various properties, and definitions that can differentiate between both of them. Acids are said to be the chemical compounds that are the proton donors and when they are mixed in an aqueous solution, it rises the H+ ion concentration, whereas Bases are the chemical compounds that are the proton acceptors and when they are mixed in aqueous solution it increases the OH- ion concentration. Other than that they can be differentiated as acid is a chemical compound, which gives the higher hydrogen ion activity to the solution than the pure water, when it is being dissolved in water i.e. a pH less than 7.0. Contrary to this, base is a chemical compound, which gives the lower hydrogen ion activity to the solution than the pure water, when it is being dissolved in water i.e. a pH higher than 7.0.

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Comparison Chart

AcidBase
Compact DefinitionAcid is a chemical compound that has a pH lower than 7, and has an ability to donate the protons and accept the electron pair, and when it is mixed or dissolved in an aqueous solution it increases the H+ ion concentration.Base is a chemical compound that has a pH higher than 7, and has an ability to accept the protons and donate the electron pair, and when it is mixed or dissolved in an aqueous solution it increases the OH- ion concentration.
Dissolved in WaterAcid gives the higher hydrogen ion activity to the solution than the pure water, when it is being dissolved in water i.e. a pH less than 7.0.Base gives the lower hydrogen ion activity to the solution than the pure water, when it is being dissolved in water i.e. a pH higher than 7.0.
Litmus PaperAcids turn blue litmus paper red.Bases turn red litmus paper blue.
TasteSourSoapy
ExampleAcetic acid (CH3COOH) Sulfuric acid, (H2SO4) Hydrochloric acid (HCl)Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), NH3
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What is Acid?

Acid is a chemical compound that has a pH lower than 7, and has an ability to donate the protons and accept the electron pair, and when it is mixed or dissolved in an aqueous solution it increases the H+ ion concentration. There are many definitions by the famous chemists about acids, as it is one of the integral compounds in chemistry. The above given definition is a compact definition that covers various properties of acids. Apart from that here are some of the famous definitions of acids. According to the Arrhenius, an acid is any chemical compound which when dissolved in water gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water. According to the Bronstead Lowry, An acid is a substance which donates a proton. According to the Lewis, acid is a compound or ionic species which can accept an electron pair from a donor compound. Acids are the compounds having a pH value less than 7, although lower the pH value, stronger the acid. They usually have sour taste, some examples of acids are Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Sulfuric acid, and (H2SO4) Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Acids turn blue litmus paper red, on the other hand, bases turn red litmus paper blue.

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What is Base?

Base is a chemical compound that has a pH higher than 7, and has an ability to accept the protons and donate the electron pair, and when it is mixed or dissolved in an aqueous solution it increases the OH- ion concentration. According to the Arrhenius, a base is an aqueous substance that can accept hydrogen ions. According to the Bronstead Lowry, a base is any substance which accepts a proton. According to Lewis, base is a species that can donate a pair of electrons to an electron acceptor. As mentioned above base are the compounds having higher pH than 7, it should be kept mentioned here that higher the pH, the stronger the base. Salt which is another type of chemical compound on the basis of dissolution is formed as a result of chemical reaction between the acid and base. The process of reaction between acid and base is called neutralization and it produces water other than the formation of salts. Bases turn red litmus paper blue. Bases generally have the soapy taste, some common examples of bases are; Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), NH3, etc.

Acid vs. Base

  • Acids are said to be the chemical compounds that are the proton donors and when they are mixed in an aqueous solution, it rises the H+ ion concentration, whereas Bases are the chemical compounds that are the proton acceptors and when they are mixed in aqueous solution it increases the OH- ion concentration.
  • Acid is a chemical compound, which gives the higher hydrogen ion activity to the solution than the pure water, when it is being dissolved in water i.e. a pH less than 7.0. Contrary to this, base is a chemical compound, which gives the lower hydrogen ion activity to the solution than the pure water, when it is being dissolved in water i.e. a pH higher than 7.0.
  • Acids turn blue litmus paper red, on the other hand, bases turn red litmus paper blue.
  • Acids usually have sour taste, whereas bases generally have the soapy taste.

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