DNA is a molecule which carries all the information related to human development, brain, activities, growth and other reproductive functions from the genes. Most DNA are of two polymers which are joined together in the form of a coil and form a double helix. While the structure of DNA is complicated, the functions which go on in it are also difficult to comprehend. Two of such functions are known as Translation in DNA and Transcription in DNA. They are different from each other and occur in variable ways which will be discussed in this article. A gene consists of sequential DNA which is the basis of genetic code which has to be arranged in a proper manner. Therefore, transcription is defined as the conversion of the information code from the DNA to its RNA. While translation is the synthesis of protein from the mRNA to a sequence of amino acids. In simple words, the main purpose of transcription is to create different copies of genes in the form of RNA which can be used by the cell while the main purpose of translation is to produce proteins which are used by different functions of the cell. There are many products which are created when the process of transcription in the DNA takes place and these products are known as mRNA, tRNA and rRNA while the only product which is produced during the process of translation is protein. Both the processes occur at different places because of the product they give. The process of transcription takes place in the nucleus while the process of translation takes place in the cytoplasm. There are many other differences between the two which will be listed at the end while a brief description of both these processes is given next.
Definition of Translation in DNA
This Process is carried out in the ribosome and is the one in which DNA is converted into proteins during a lengthy process in the form of amino acids. This protein is used by different functions that are to be performed by the cell and is the one in which splicing is required. This process does not need any other molecule to act as an adaptor while the other main requirement of translation includes different types of polypeptide chains. There are also other factors involved such as initiation, elongation, and translocase while occasional changes in the amino acids combining with other substances also occur.
Definition of Transcription of DNA
This is a process in which several chains of RNA are produced when the DNA is converted. This is done to make sure the cell has all the tools required to perform its function, therefore, the main product of transcription is mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. The complete process takes place in the nucleus and there is no requirement of adaptor molecule through the process of splicing may be required in some cases. Processing process also takes place in which cutting, modification, and folding take place. The process is essential for the cell while the main requirement for it is the RNA polymerase.
Differences in a Nutshell
- The product in the process of transcription is the different forms of RNA while the product produced during the process of translation is known as protein.
- The whole process takes place in the nucleus when it comes to transcription while the complete process is carried out in the ribosome.
- The main requirement of the transcription process is the RNA polymerase while the main requirement of the translation process is the different types of the polypeptide
- In the process of transcription, the DNA is converted into RNA while in the process of translation the DNA is converted into Protein.
- Different copies of RNA are created in transcription which is required by the cell while the protein produced during the process of translation is used by the different functions.
- There is no requirement of an adapter molecule in the process of transcription while an adapter molecule is required for the process of translation.
- Splicing is required during the transcription process while it is not a requirement for translation.
Science and Biology can be subjects which become difficult for people who do not know much about them. When people, who are studying it, get confused about the same kind of terms it can get very irritating. This article has laid out the main differences between the two processes of DNA to give people a clearer understanding of them.