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In all living organism having the sexual type of reproduction, gametes are necessary. So these gametes are synthesized in the body by a special process. These processes differ from each other in opposite sexes. Different processes synthesize both male and female gametes. Male have germ cells or gametes named as sperms, while female have gametes named as eggs or ovum. The process of production or development of spermatozoa is called spermatogenesis that occurs in the testicles of the male while the process of production or development of ovum is called oogenesis and it occurs in the ovaries of female. So they key difference of spermatogenesis and oogenesis is of difference in sex of organism and situation where they take place.
What is Spermatogenesis?
Sperm means male gamete and Genesis means synthesis. Spermatogenesis is the process of formation and development of spermatozoa, in this haploid sperms are formed from diploid sperm. It takes place inside the seminiferous tubules of testes of the male. All stages of spermatogenesis are completed inside the testis of male, and it is a constant process which means that sperms are continuously synthesized in the male. It is a short process in which spermatogonia divides into spermatocytes. This process is carried out in the epithelium of seminiferous tubules. Primary spermatocyte divides into two secondary spermatocytes which further divide by meiosis II to form spermatids. Note that no polar bodies are formed here. These spermatids go through the process of condensation and finally form mature sperms. These sperms have a head, body, and a tail which make it mobile.
What is Oogenesis?
Oo stands for ovum, or female gamete and Genesis means synthesis. Oogenesis is the process of formation and development of ovum, in this haploid ovum are formed from diploid ovum. It takes place inside the follicles of ovaries of female. It is not completed in ovaries, major parts of oogenesis are carried out in ovaries while the last stage occurs outside the ovaries in the reproductive track of females.In oogenesis, growth phase is prolonged, and ovum develops in the epithelium of ovaries. Primary oocyte goes through meiosis I to form one secondary oocyte and one polar body; then secondary oocyte divides by meiosis II to form ovum and one polar body. In this no condensation take place. Ovum does not have any tail, so they are not mobile. Oogenesis is not a continuous process and is completed in few days or years.
Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
- Spermatogenesis is the process of formation and development of spermatozoa, whereas oogenesis is the process of formation and development of the ovum.
- Spermatogenesis occurs in males, whereas oogenesis occurs in females.
- All stages of spermatogenesis are completed inside the testis of male, and it is a constant process. On the other hand, Oogenesis is not completed in ovaries, major parts of oogenesis are carried out in ovaries while the last stage occurs outside the ovaries in the reproductive track of females and is not a constant process.
- Spermatogenesis is a short process while oogenesis is a long process.
- In spermatogenesis, no polar body is formed while In oogenesis two polar bodies are formed.
- In spermatogenesis, condensation of material takes place while in oogenesis, condensation does not happen.