The main difference between solid, liquid and gas is that solid is a state of matter with tightly packed particles in a specific shape while liquid has loosely packed particles without any specific shape whereas gas has freely moving particles and covers the shape of the container in which it is enclosed.
Solid vs. Liquid vs. Gas
Everything in this universe that has mass and occupies space is known as matter. In other words, everything around us, such as plants, animals, water, food, vehicles and clothes etc. is matter. The matter is composed of tiny particles such as atoms, groups of atoms or molecules and ions etc. According to the physical characteristics of these tiny particles, the matter is divided into three states, i.e. solid, liquid and gas. If the tiny particles are tightly bound together and form a rigid structure with proper shape, then it will be the solid state of matter, e.g. Ice, Apple etc. The liquid is a state of matter that has particles that are loosely bound and do not have a specific shape, but it has a specific volume, e.g. water, juices etc. Gas is made up of freely moving particles and covers almost all the available space easily. It does not have a specific shape and volume, e.g. methane gas etc.
What is Solid?
A solid is a rigid state of matter that retains its density and shape when not confined. It has strong force of attraction between its molecules. So, It has a little or minimum intermolecular space. Particles are bound tightly and found closed together to form a specific shape. Its particles have negligible motion, Solid is very difficult to compress, and it cannot flow. It has a specific volume and does not require any container to store it. e.g. banana, table, car etc.
What is Liquid?
The liquid is a freely moving substance of constant or specific volume. It is that state of matter that has random and loosely arranged particles. The liquid has low forces of attraction between its molecules. So, it has more intermolecular spaces and does not has any specific shape. It is nearly difficult to compress liquid due to little gaps between molecules, but it can flow easily from higher concentration to lower concentration. The container is required to store liquid. e.g. water, juices, milk etc.
What is Gas?
Gas is a state of matter with random and freely moving particles. Force of attraction between gas particles or molecules is almost negligible. So, they move freely and have very large intercellular spaces between them. That is why it does not have a specific shape and volume. It forms the shape of the container in which it is enclosed. A closed container is required to store gas. It is very easy to compress a gas due to large spaces between its molecule. Moreover, it can flow easily due to the weak force of attraction between its molecules. e.g. methane gas.
- A rigid state of matter with a maximum force of attraction between its molecules is called solid while liquid has the medium type of intermolecular attraction whereas gas has a minimum or no force of attraction between its molecules.
- Solid has a specific shape and volume while liquid has no any specific shape but has specific volume and gas has no any specific shape and volume.
- There is very little space between particles of solid while liquid has little space between its particles whereas gas particles have lots of space between them
- Solid is tough to compress, but the liquid is less difficult as compared to solid whereas gas is very easy to compress.
- Solid cannot flow but liquid can flow easily from higher concentration to lower concentration and gas can flow in all directions.
- Solid does not require any container to be stored while the liquid is stored in container whereas gas required a closed container to be stored.
From the above discussion, it is concluded that solid is a rigid state of matter with specific shape and volume while liquid is a flowing substance without any specific shape but has specific volume whereas gas has freely moving particles without any specific shape and volume.