Difference Between Human Sperm and Ovum

Main Difference

The main difference between Human Sperm and Ovum is that Human Sperm is a male gamete that is produced in the testis of a male whereas Ovum is the female gamete that is produced in the ovary of a female.

Human Sperm vs. Ovum

Gamete formation is the most important process in sexual reproduction. Gametes are the haploid cells, i.e., they are made up of half the number of chromosomes (23). Two different gametes, i.e., male and female fuse to form the complete set of chromosomes (46) that give rise to a new individual. The process of the formation of male and female gametes is known as gametogenesis. Gametogenesis produces male gametes, i.e., sperm and female gametes, i.e., ovum. The process of production of sperm is known as Spermatogenesis while that of the ovum is called oogenesis. Sperms are produced in testes, but ovum is produced in ovaries. Sperm is small in size and can move easily whereas ovum is large and cannot move.

Comparison Chart

Human SpermOvum
The male gamete which is a motile, flagellated, long cell and differentiated into different regions is called male sperm.The female gamete with rounded spheres and non-motile cells that are not differentiated into different regions are known as
Ovum.
Motility
Sperm can move easily.The ovum cannot move.
Size
Human sperm is very small in size.Ovum is large.
Mitochondria
In sperm, mitochondria are present in the middle of the cell in spiral form and are compactly arranged.In ovum, mitochondria are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm
In human sperm, the cytoplasm is present in a small amount.In ovum, the cytoplasm is present in the large amount.
Nucleus
In sperm, the nucleus is in condensed form with no nucleoplasm.Ovum contains nucleoplasm that is known as the germinal vesicle.
Chromosomes
In human sperm, the nucleus is haploid and contains both X or Y chromosome.In ovum, the nucleus is haploid but contains an only X chromosome.
Centrioles
Centrioles are present in human sperm.Centrioles are absent in human ovum.
Formation
Sperms are formed in the testes.Ovum is formed in the ovaries.
Process
The process of sperm production is called spermatogenesis.The process of formation of the ovum is known as oogenesis.
Number of sperms
One spermatogonium contains four sperms.One oogonium formed only one ovum.
Regions
Sperms are divided into different regions, i.e., head, neck, middle piece, and tail.Ovum is not externally divided into regions.
Outer covering
Sperms are surrounded by plasma membrane only.Ovum is surrounded by the egg envelopes.
Ejaculation
Millions of sperms are released in the male in one ejaculate.Females produced only one ovum per month.
Nature of Production
Production of human sperms is not a cyclic process.Production of the ovum is a cyclic process.

What is Human Sperm?

The word “sperm” is derived from the Greek word ‘Sperma‘ which stands for “seed.” Sperm is the male reproductive cell and produced in the male reproductive organ, i.e., testes. The process in which sperm produced is known as spermatogenesis. They are known as the smallest and straightest cell in human anatomy. It is about60 um long and a flagellated motile cell. A sperm cell is divided into different parts like the head, neck, long tail and middle piece with a small nucleus and low amount of cytoplasm. Mitochondria are present in the middle of the cell in spiral and compact form. A sperm cell can be frozen and conserved below 60-degree Celsius in the womb of the female. Production of human sperms is a noncyclic process, and they keep on producing throughout the life of the man.

What is Ovum?

Ovum is the female reproductive round shape cell and is also known as egg cell or oocytes. They produced in the ovaries, and the process of their formation is known as oogenesis. They are known as the largest cell in the anatomy of the human and can easily be observed by the naked eye. They vary in size from 0.15-0.2 mm and is surrounded by the zona pellicuda, which is a non-cellular and transparent zone. They have a high volume of cytoplasm and mitochondria are scattered in it. The egg cell exists for only 12-24 hours and cannot be conserved. They are nonmotile and produced in a cyclic process. Ovum does not keep on producing throughout the life of the female.

Key Differences

  1. The male gamete which is a motile, flagellated, long cell and differentiated into different regions is called male sperm whereas the female gamete with rounded spheres and non-motile cells that are not differentiated into different regions are called as Ovum.
  2. Sperm can move easily; on the other hand; ovum cannot move.
  3. Human sperm is very small in size about 60 um long. Conversely, the ovum is large in size of about 15-0.2 mm.
  4. In sperm, mitochondria are present in the middle of the cell in spiral form and are compactly arranged on the flip side, in the ovum, mitochondria are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  5. In human sperm, the cytoplasm is present in the small amount whereas, in the ovum, the cytoplasm is present in the large amount.
  6. In sperm, the nucleus is in condensed form with no nucleoplasm, but ovum contains nucleoplasm that is known as the germinal vesicle.
  7. In human sperm, the nucleus is haploid and contains both X or Y chromosome while in the ovum, the nucleus is haploid but contains an only X chromosome.
  8. Centrioles are present in human sperm on the other side centrioles are absent in human ovum.
  9. Sperms are formed in the testes, and the process of their formation is known as spermatogenesis whereas ovum is formed in the ovaries and the process is known as oogenesis.
  10. One spermatogonium contains four sperms while one oogonium formed only one ovum.
  11. Sperms are divided into different regions, i.e., head, neck, middle piece, and tail conversely ovum is not externally divided into regions.
  12. Sperms are surrounded by plasma membrane only while ovum is also surrounded by the egg envelopes.
  13. Millions of sperms are released in the male in one ejaculate whereas females produced only one ovum per month.
  14. Production of human sperms is not a cyclic process while production of the ovum is a cyclic process.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is summarized that sperm is the male reproductive cell that is very small in size and produces in testes whereas ovum is the female reproductive cell that is very large and produces in ovaries.

Author: