Difference Between Gamete vs. Genotype

Main Difference

The main difference between gamete and genotype is that gamete is a sex cell on the other hand genotype is the genetic makeup of the cell.

Gamete vs. Genotype

Gametes are the sex cells which are of two types’ male sex cell known as sperm and female sex cell known as ova or egg. Sperms are found in male sex organ in semen and eggs are found in female organ ovary. The genotype is a different term than gamete. It is actually a genetic makeup, composition or structure of a specific organism. Gametes are used to form a new individual. When a male gamete unites with a female gamete during the sexual process, a zygote is formed which afterward develop an individual. Genotype determines its characteristics or traits. Genotype tells about hair color, eye color, the shape of eyes, nose even its whole personality. These characteristics travel from the parents to the offspring through genes. Genes are the part of DNA which is present on chromosomes.

Comparison Chart

GameteGenotype
A gamete is a reproductive cell (egg or sperm) that would unite during sexual mating.The genotype is the genetic makeup of the cell that determines the characteristics of an individual.
Discoverer
Gregor MendalWilhelm Johannsen distinguished genotype from phenotype
Parts
Sperm and EggGenes, Chromosomes, DNA, Alleles
Purpose/Use
To determine genderGenetic identity

What is Gamete?

The term gamete was firstly introduced by Gregor Mendel who was an Austrian biologist. A gamete is a sex cell. It is also known as a reproductive cell which unites during sexual mating. A male cell, which is known as sperm, unite with a female cell, which is known as ova or egg during sexual mating and a zygote is formed, the union of a male and female cell. Meiosis is a process from which a gamete is produced by cell division. During this process, the gamete is called a haploid which means having only one set of chromosomes. Upon sexual production, when male sperm and female egg become a zygote, the haploid now becomes diploid which means having two sets of chromosomes. So each gamete either it is sperm or egg carries half genotype of an individual, and after the union, the zygote has a full genotype of an individual.

What is Genotype?

The genotype is a set of genes in DNA which is responsible for a specific trait. Two individuals that have even a small difference in their genes are known to have different genotypes. In fact, a genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell. It is basically complete heritable genetic identity of an individual. It is unique for each even if they are twins. Genes are hidden traits or characteristics of an individual. Wilhelm Johannsen firstly discovered the term genotype in 1909 while working in Denmark. This difference is between the hereditary dispositions of individuals (genotype) and how these dispositions manifest themselves in the physical traits of individuals (phenotype). There are three types of genotypes; homozygous dominant, heterozygous and homozygous recessive. Chromosomes are expressed in a pair of the letter which is called alleles. The allele pairs are a dominant trait, co-dominant trait, and recessive trait. One sequence of genotype is different from the other sequence of genotype. Genotypes are denoted by the letters like Aa in which A represent the one allele while a represent the other allele. Thus, the genotype is a complete heritable genetic identity and refers to the unique genome.

Key Differences

  1. A gamete is a mature haploid male or female sex cell on the other side genotype is the genetic complement of a phenotype.
  2. Gametes are used to form an individual whereas genotype is used to specify an individual’s traits.
  3. A gamete is discovered by Gregor Mendal on the other hand genotype is described by Wilhelm Johannsen.

Conclusion

It has concluded that term gamete refers to sex cell either sperm or egg whereas genotype refers to specific genetic characteristics that pass to an individual.